Tuesday, October 13, 2009

Dr. Edward Laws, neurosurgeon. "Simply the Best"

Although this is an older article and Dr Laws has moved from UVa, he is still a great doctor!

From http://www.virginia.edu/insideuva/2004/07/pituitary_center.html

Simply the Best
Pituitary Center brings life-changing treatment to thousands

Dr. Edward Laws prepares to remove a pituitary tumor from a patient.

Photo by Andrew Shurtleff

Dr. Edward Laws prepares to remove a pituitary tumor from a patient. These tumors account for 20 percent of all primary brain tumors, and Laws is internationally recognized as the top pituitary surgeon.

By Fariss Samarrai

Dr. Edward LawsDr. Edward Laws stands on a wooden pedestal as he extracts a brain tumor through a woman’s right nostril. His resident, Dr. Adam Kanter, and a team of operating room specialists, have prepared the patient for the procedure by first anesthetizing her, and then, by sending long and slim instruments up the woman’s nostril, they have removed a thin wafer of bone, allowing direct access through the air sinuses to the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

Laws’ job is to remove a tumor that has grown on the pituitary by carefully scraping loose and periodically removing fragments of the mass of bad cells while being careful to leave the healthy tissue of the pituitary and the brain intact. He does this while looking at the inside of the patient’s head through a binocular endoscope with a micro-camera attached, allowing everyone in the OR to observe the procedure on a video monitor.

He pulls out another fragment of the tumor.

“These tumors have the texture of tofu,” he says, though the tissue he is extracting is bloody. He mentions in passing that he used to tell people that pituitary tumors have the texture of tapioca, but that many people don’t seem to know what that is anymore.

Laws removes a final fragment of the tumor, and his work is done for now. The procedure is called trans-sphenoidal surgery — basically access-through-the-nose surgery. By day’s end Laws will have removed pituitary tumors from six patients, likely making the lives of these people immeasurably better.

Laws is director of the Pituitary Center at U.Va. He has removed pituitary tumors from more than 4,300 patients, more than any other doctor in the world. Most of these surgeries have been performed at the U.Va. center he helped found in 1972. Laws is internationally recognized as the top pituitary tumor surgeon. Medical residents from around the world come to U.Va. to train under him.

Illustration by Craig Luce

Pituitary Tumors
Where they are and how they are removed

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain near the spinal cord, in the lower center of the head. This gland, normally the size of a pea, is the master gland that controls the production of all hormones. The pituitary controls growth, sexual maturation, fertility, metabolism, stress response and fluid balances. Pituitary tumors are reached by passing long and slim surgical instruments through the air sinuses to the diseased gland.

The procedure, like all planned operations, is methodical, calm, controlled, predictable, with precautions in place for possible problems or emergencies. The operation is so un-invasive, it more resembles routine dental work than major surgery. Yet, Laws and his colleagues are working at the very edge of the brain. There is little room here for error.

In past years, pituitary surgery was more dramatic, and intensive, for both the surgeon and the patient. It involved removing a portion of the skull and pushing the brain aside to reach the pituitary. The recovery period was long, and there was much greater risk for damage and complications. Laws and others invented and refined the current technique — passage through the nose — which rarely involves direct contact with the brain, even as they operate within its midst.

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain near the spinal cord, in the lower center of the head. This gland, normally the size of a pea, is the master gland that controls the production of all hormones. The pituitary controls growth, sexual maturation, fertility, metabolism, stress response and fluid balances.

For reasons not well understood, the pituitary is subject to the slow growth of tumors. These tumors are the third-most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for 20 percent of all brain tumors. Though these tumors are almost always benign, they aren’t friendly. They can cause the pituitary gland to produce excessive or insufficient amounts of hormones, leading to a vast array of unpleasant symptoms, including severe and chronic headaches, infertility, sexual dysfunction, fatigue, weight gain, depression, apathy, sleep disorders, memory loss, and in some cases, loss of vision. Pituitary disorders also are the cause of Cushing’s syndrome, which results in obesity, “moonlike” features of the face, excess body hair and thin brittle bones.

Pituitary surgeries are discussed prior to and after each operation.

Photographs by Andrew Shurtleff

Pituitary surgeries are discussed prior to and after each operation.

Because the symptoms of pituitary disorders are so varied, it can take years to arrive at a correct diagnosis,” Laws said. “Patients often think that their health problems are attributed to just getting older.”

It takes a brain scan in the form of magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the presence of a pituitary tumor. Sometimes the tumor is three times the size of the gland itself, putting pressure on the brain and optic nerve, resulting in headaches and vision loss. Small tumors often can be treated with hormones and drugs. Radiation may shrink the tumor or inhibit its growth. If the tumor continues to grow, and symptoms worsen, surgery may be necessary.

Laws discovered early, at the beginning of his medical training at Johns Hopkins University, that he was interested in neurosurgery. His fascination with the brain has continued throughout his 40-year career as a surgeon and brain tumor researcher.

“How beautiful the brain is,” he said recently. “I’m amazed with what happens with the human brain, and I love dealing with it in an intimate fashion.” He describes the brain as “one of the greatest of God’s creations.”

But he’s happy to fix that creation when something goes wrong.

“We can restore vision,” he said of pituitary surgery. “We can restore fertility and reverse body changes. This is enormously satisfying.”

These tumors are identified using magnetic resonance imaging.

These tumors are identified using magnetic resonance imaging.

One of the first patients Laws treated with the through-the-nose surgical method was a 21-year-old man named Harvey Gartner. The surgery was performed in 1969 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital where Laws was a neurosurgery resident. Gartner had been growing rapidly since he was 6 months old. His bones were elongated, and he suffered from arthritis and other ailments.

“Those were tough years,” Gartner said of his youth.

The operation took 12 hours to complete, and all of the pituitary gland was removed, as was standard at the time. Gartner, now 56, is on lifetime hormone replacement therapy, but his health is generally good.

“I would have died,” if not for the surgery, he said.

Gartner is now a computer programmer and businessman in Jacksonville, Fla. He has remained in contact with Laws, and the pediatrician who cared for him throughout his life, Dr. Robert Blizzard, a U.Va. professor emeritus of pediatric endocrinology. At the time of Gartner’s surgery, Hopkins was the top pituitary center in the United States. That title has long since shifted to U.Va. as a result of Laws, Blizzard and others coming here to establish their interdisciplinary center.

Today, surgeons rarely need to remove the entire pituitary gland. Instead, when surgery is necessary, they remove only the tumor attached to the gland. The entire procedure, including prepping the patient for surgery and the post-operative period, can be accomplished in a couple of hours. The patient is able to return home in two or three days and can resume normal activities in two to four weeks.

Within a few days after surgery, the patient’s severe headaches will have diminished. Vision will be restored within a day in cases where the tumor had pressed against the optic nerve. Body changes, such as weight loss and normalization of facial features, will occur in about six months. Throughout the patient’s life, teams of endocrinologists and other specialists will measure the patient’s hormone levels and develop and refine treatment plans. Laws said some patients might not even need hormone replacement therapy.

“I don’t think anybody does this work better than we do at U.Va.,” Laws said recently between surgeries. “We’re improving our techniques and reducing the recurrence of tumors after surgery.”

At this moment he is called back into the operating room. Another patient is prepped and waiting.

Cutting-edge center
For treatment and research

The interdisciplinary Pituitary Center at U.Va. pools the talents of leading specialists in endocrinology, neurosurgery, neuro-ophthalmology, neuropathology and other areas. The specialists work as a team to diagnose patients and develop treatment plans.

Health care professionals at the center evaluate about 500 new patients each year, most of them referrals from around the Commonwealth, and the rest from other states and around the world. More than 260 new patients are operated on each year at the hospital and more than a thousand patients per year are treated at the center’s clinic at Fontaine Research Park.

Every 18 months the center brings together patients and referring physicians. The center provides training and education for fellows, medical students and residents.

Center specialists are developing a national and international referral base, providing pituitary information to physicians and patients worldwide.

Researchers with the center are constantly looking for ways to control and perhaps someday stop the development of pituitary growths.

“We want to understand why these tumors develop in the first place,” said Dr. Edward Laws, the center director.

Clinical trials are conducted at the center to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments, and Laws and other surgeons are always refining surgical techniques and developing new ones. They have operated on more than 350 patients with a “gamma knife” — a precise beam of gamma radiation that can evaporate abnormal pituitary tissue. This, and other techniques, keep the center on the cutting edge.


  1. After 6 months of offering stem cell therapy in combination with the venous angioplasty liberation procedure, patients of CCSVI Clinic have reported excellent health outcomes. Ms. Kasma Gianopoulos of Athens Greece, who was diagnosed with the Relapsing/Remitting form of MS in 1997 called the combination of treatments a “cure”. “I feel I am completely cured” says Ms. Gianopoulos, “my symptoms have disappeared and I have a recovery of many functions, notably my balance and my muscle strength is all coming (back). Even after six months, I feel like there are good changes happening almost every day. Before, my biggest fear was that the changes wouldn’t (hold). I don’t even worry about having a relapse anymore. I’m looking forward to a normal life with my family. I think I would call that a miracle.”
    Other recent MS patients who have had Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation (ASCT), or stem cell therapy have posted videos and comments on YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=jFQr2eqm3Cg.
    Dr. Avneesh Gupte, the Neurosurgeon at Noble Hospital performing the procedure has been encouraged by results in Cerebral Palsy patients as well. “We are fortunate to be able to offer the treatment because not every hospital is able to perform these types of transplants. You must have the specialized medical equipment and specially trained doctors and nurses”. With regard to MS patients, “We are cautious, but nevertheless excited by what patients are telling us. Suffice to say that the few patients who have had the therapy through us are noticing recovery of neuro deficits beyond what the venous angioplasty only should account for”.
    Dr. Unmesh of Noble continues: “These are early days and certainly all evidence that the combination of liberation and stem cell therapies working together at this point is anecdotal. However I am not aware of other medical facilities in the world that offer the synthesis of both to MS patients on an approved basis and it is indeed a rare opportunity for MS patients to take advantage of a treatment that is quite possibly unique in the world”.
    Autologous stem cell transplantation is a procedure by which blood-forming stem cells are removed, and later injected back into the patient. All stem cells are taken from the patient themselves and cultured for later injection. In the case of a bone marrow transplant, the HSC are typically removed from the Pelvis through a large needle that can reach into the bone. The technique is referred to as a bone marrow harvest and is performed under a general anesthesia. The incidence of patients experiencing rejection is rare due to the donor and recipient being the same individual.This remains the only approved method of the SCT therapy.

  2. Stem cells are “non-specialized” cells that have the potential to form into other types of specific cells, such as blood, muscles or nerves. They are unlike "differentiated" cells which have already become whatever organ or structure they are in the body. Stem cells are present throughout our body, but more abundant in a fetus.
    Medical researchers and scientists believe that stem cell therapy will, in the near future, advance medicine dramatically and change the course of disease treatment. This is because stem cells have the ability to grow into any kind of cell and, if transplanted into the body, will relocate to the damaged tissue, replacing it. For example, neural cells in the spinal cord, brain, optic nerves, or other parts of the central nervous system that have been injured can be replaced by injected stem cells. Various stem cell therapies are already practiced, a popular one being bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia. In theory and in fact, lifeless cells anywhere in the body, no matter what the cause of the disease or injury, can be replaced with vigorous new cells because of the remarkable plasticity of stem cells. Biomed companies predict that with all of the research activity in stem cell therapy currently being directed toward the technology, a wider range of disease types including cancer, diabetes, spinal cord injury, and even multiple sclerosis will be effectively treated in the future. Recently announced trials are now underway to study both safety and efficacy of autologous stem cell transplantation in MS patients because of promising early results from previous trials.
    Research into stem cells grew out of the findings of two Canadian researchers, Dr’s James Till and Ernest McCulloch at the University of Toronto in 1961. They were the first to publish their experimental results into the existence of stem cells in a scientific journal. Till and McCulloch documented the way in which embryonic stem cells differentiate themselves to become mature cell tissue. Their discovery opened the door for others to develop the first medical use of stem cells in bone marrow transplantation for leukemia. Over the next 50 years their early work has led to our current state of medical practice where modern science believes that new treatments for chronic diseases including MS, diabetes, spinal cord injuries and many more disease conditions are just around the corner. For more information please visit http://www.neurosurgeonindia.org/

  3. My name is David Summers of Murfreesboro, TN and I have had MS for 16 years. I am 37 years old and as of January 2012, was effectively an 8.0 on the EDSS scale. Originally RRMS, my disease progression had become SPMS (very progressive) within 4 years of onset. Normally anyone in my position and with my bleak diagnosis is limited to a short future, absolutely no quality of life and a painful end...possibly prior to my 40th birthday if the current progression of the disease continued (without the slightest hesitation or glimmer of hope, my Neurologist just told me: “ Prepare to deteriorate”). But after I heard about Dr. Zamboni’s ‘liberation therapy hypothesis’ in 2010, I began my search for the vein-widening therapy. This put me into a clinic in Duluth, Georgia where they were doing the liberation procedure. I received immediate positive results post-procedure...along with the surgeon’s warning that 50% of the MS patients who undergo the liberation therapy suffer a re-narrowing of the jugular veins within a year or so. Sure enough, within 3 months I knew that I was going to be among the unlucky 50%; all of the original improvements disappeared as I relapsed.

    I felt the only way forward was to get it done again, hopefully this time with more enduring results. But where would I go to get this done again and how would that be possible? If my neck veins restenosed after the first treatment, what was to prevent that from happening again...and again? I began to read the Internet blogs and forum chats placed on the many new CCSVI sites by MS patients about where to go and what their experiences were. In this respect, the Internet became a valuable educational tool for me. On several of the blogs, I discovered a New York clinic where they placed a stent during the procedure to keep the jugular veins open, and that positive results were being seen. Grimly, I also discovered that although rare, the prospect of death as a result of this procedure was also a risk. At least one person in a recent study had died when the stent migrated to his heart. But I was willing to put those thoughts and the risks aside. What did I really have to lose? I was dying a slow death. As long as someone was able to treat me there was a chance to hope, and I was down for it. But that wasn’t the main question I was asking myself.

    As my disease rapidly progressed and my disabilities became more overwhelming, the question I was asking myself was, was it too late for me? Although I was happy with the fact that my original liberation therapy had diminished most of the symptoms above my waist, I had to ask myself if getting stents was merely settling for a compromised improvement. Having had some success, if I had this done again, I wanted more! Don’t get me wrong, I think the liberation therapy is a miracle discovery from God. As soon as I had my first procedure my cog fog lifted, the vision in my right eye improved greatly, the numbness in both hands dissipated by a few degrees, my ability to taste food returned, my energy levels were ’off the charts’, and my sleep was so sweet. Also, because MS had robbed my body of the ability to regulate body temperature by sweating, I had not been able to handle the hot, humid Southern summers where I live, except to blast cold AC non-stop as a survival method during those sickly ‘dog days’. After the procedure this changed too. I knew it when deodorant suddenly became necessity for my personal hygiene once again!
    For more information please visit our site http://davidsmsstemcelljourney.blogspot.in/

  4. But it ended by the 90-day point and I was right back where I started. Immediately following the procedure I had dreams of rising from the wheelchair I’d been confined to for ten years and walking like a real man; but even with the incredible improvements overall, it seemed that the only healing occurred above the waist. Perhaps I would just have to accept that even if I could improve to what the full extent of the liberation therapy would allow, I would always be in a wheelchair. While researching the New York clinic and other places, my parents and I came upon CCSVI Clinic through a Google search. We discovered that they are essentially a research clinic operating under an IRB but with a major difference. For the past year, having seen even better results than just doing the liberation therapy alone, they have also been transplanting adult autologous stem cells, cultured and re-injected into the body shortly after the neck venoplasty. If I chose to go there instead of New York, the procedure would be done at CCSVI Clinic at Noble Hospital in Pune India and I would have to get there essentially as a partially paralyzed patient transported in a wheelchair. There would also be a requirement to stay in the hospital for 10-12 days. But after researching the improvements demonstrated in MS patients in stem cell clinical trials, I simply decided that as long as they would take me, nothing was going to stop me from making that trip. On calls with the clinic, it was also explained that stents were not necessary as the stem cells injected intravenously could be enough to keep my veins from restenosing. My confidence in their method increased when I discovered that Dr. Gupte, the neurosurgeon, had been transplanting autologous stem cells for 4 years for a number of different neurodegenerative conditions, including MS and based his therapies on completed stem cell trial methods done in a number of hospitals and universities outside of the US (to be absolutely sure, I confirmed this through searches on Google Scholar). He had already done over 2000 successful transplants! Regarding my communications with CCSVI Clinic, I need to confess here that we did not tell the doctors the truth originally. My mother, who arranged the treatments, told them that I was an EDSS 6.5 in order to qualify. Basically she knew that they wouldn’t accept me into the program if she said I was higher. But if they saw my actual physical condition could they refuse me on the clinic steps? I hoped not.

    So in late March it was off to India with my father who is a strong man, and my capable assistant. We arrived on March 26, 2012, and met Surjo Banerjee, CCSVI Clinic’s Managing Director at the airport. He drove us from the airport to Pune, a surprisingly modern city just south of Mumbai. I was amazed to see that the hospital and the CCSVI Clinic itself, (a full wing of suites within the hospital complex) was as clean and modern as any hospital here in the States. After checking in with a number of other patients, I was triaged for the procedures. However, based on my new assessment, it was determined that I would need about twice the amount of stem cells that they had originally programmed, figuring my EDSS scale requirement of 6.5. But paying more was out of the question. We are not rich and had basically ‘sold the farm’ to get here in the first place, and the recommended additional stem cells were going to cost another $12,000 that we had not planned for. Not their fault...I didn’t tell them the extent of my condition in the first place. So the first miracle happened when CCSVI Clinic management offered to personally cover these additional costs. I had never even met some of them, but as a result of their generosity, I received an additional 50,000,000 mesenchymal stem cells and I cannot thank them enough for the difference they have made to my life.For more information visit our site http://davidsmsstemcelljourney.blogspot.in/

  5. On Tuesday March 27

    , I once again had the liberation therapy followed by the harvesting of red bone marrow cells from my hip bone. The clinic has strict aftercare protocols around each type of procedure with regard to position control and movement. It didn’t much affect my activity because I was unable to move much anyway. I was supine positioned, tilted slightly head high for two days following my venoplasty and then laid out supine again, in just the opposite tilt...head-lower-than-the-body for several days following the transplants of the stem cells. I was told that this would allow the newly transplanted stem cells to filter through the full length of the nervous system and locate to the points of injury. A Doppler ultrasound of my neck veins was done every day for 10 days following my liberation procedure. This was to check for any clotting or re-narrowing of the veins which had been widened. If they clotted or restenosed at any time I was in the clinic, they would take me back into the cathlab for a re-do. Happily this wasn’t necessary.
    Following the liberation therapy, the changes within my body were just as immediate and dramatic as in my first procedure in 2010, hopefully without the fear of re-stenosis; but my ‘headspace’ almost didn’t accept it. The first time with my liberation therapy in the US, the IR found one narrowing in each jugular, the right side being more severe. This time around, two blockages were found on my right side, and again one on the left. I have heard that second and third procedures for venous angioplasty are more difficult for the surgeons because there is more build up of scar tissue in the interior of the veins, but the medical team took their time and did a perfect job. Words cannot express the emotional joy in getting the blood flowing again and getting those symptomatic improvements back a second time!
    For more information visit our site http://davidsmsstemcelljourney.blogspot.in/

  6. Four days later I underwent a lower lumbar puncture, but this time not simply to gather information on whether I have MS. This time, stem cells cultured from my own body were on their way to do what God designed them to do, and that is to heal. For all of you that might be skeptical about this, I am here to tell you that is exactly what they are doing. The positive changes were noticed as soon as I returned to my suite in the clinic and anyone who is paralysed below the waist will understand this next part. To manoeuvre myself as I usually do, I went to pick my leg up from a sitting position and throw it in front of me. The hope here is that the ‘dead-weight’ of the leg will land just right and in a position where I can best situate myself to haul my body into a position where I can further awkwardly throw my whole body into my wheelchair. If you’ve ever seen a spinal patient do this or are unlucky enough to have to do this yourself, you know what an ugly, uncomfortable process this is. But this time the ‘throw’ of the leg proved to be an over-compensation. To my absolute shock and delight my leg lifted itself just as it’s supposed to work...without aid from my helpful hands and placed itself exactly where my brain told it go! At first I didn’t think much of it...this was a fluke, maybe my imagination, but it was something sure not to last. But it has to this day without any hint of regression as I work out and get stronger. This was the first sign of any recovery whatsoever that has occurred below the waist in over ten years, and it happened only hours after the stem cell transplant!

    Upon returning home on April 14, 2012, I closely followed the Clinic’s physiotherapy program. Since then I have been working out at levels I had been told by my doctors here in the states would not be possible again. When exercising before I had stem cell therapy, I always had to be careful not to overdo it because I would get a sickness that sometimes lasted 2 days, completely wiping me out. This even occurred after the first liberation therapy, but no more. I’ve been working myself silly and have not yet felt sick. Real strength has returned and muscles have been popping out in places on my body where I haven’t seen them in many years. As of this writing today, and for about the last two weeks my right hand has been functioning normally in every respect. I’m not saying it has improved some, I’m saying it is now completely NORMAL! I can hardly believe it myself.For more information visit our site http://davidsmsstemcelljourney.blogspot.in/

  7. Since I returned, and after only one month, the positive changes have been happening regularly and most every day. Most significantly, I think, my incontinence has completely improved and I am now able to almost totally control my urinary and elimination functions. All other disabilities aside, I think that this is one of the most important deficits that anyone with MS wishes they could get back! Incontinence is so embarrassing and not having control of that particular function somehow makes you feel lesser as a person. So I’m very happy to see the improvements there. My speech is back to normal. Although I never slurred my words, the thought process was oh-so-slow. Now my words come so quickly that I sometimes find myself stumbling over them...trying to say too much at once. I can’t complain about that!

    I am convinced that CCSVI Clinic is on to important discoveries about MS. They have figured this out and are doing the sequence of therapies correctly and the addition of the stem cells completes the need to repair the nerve damage that’s been done by the disease. In retrospect what they are doing suddenly makes complete sense to me. It’s still early yet and I guess time will tell to what extent my motor functions will come back, but if the last month is any indication, it could be everything, which excites me so much. I don’t know if that’s too much to hope for, but it’s the first time in 10 years that I’ve even really allowed the thought to cross my mind. The first fleeting thoughts of this after the original liberation therapy 2 years ago weren’t realistic. The good changes didn’t last. And consider this; a few months ago, I was in a wheelchair, in a permanent brain fog losing more of my independence and quality of life on a daily basis. All I had to look forward to was a deteriorating condition where others would have to take care of my every bodily function. Now I can’t wait to wake up every morning to check myself out. If anything I’m too impatient and working out too hard. But at least I can! Given my current state of health and ability to live and function on my own, the thing that is very certain is that I have a much better quality of life back and that wouldn’t have even been possible if it hadn’t been for the lucky discovery of CCSVI Clinic through an Internet search. My family and I will be eternally grateful for what has happened no matter how this turns out. Thanks to Dr. Gupte, the other doctors, the medical team and staff at the Clinic who made this all happen for me, I’m looking forward to each day with new health and optimism! May God Bless them all!For more information visit our site http://davidsmsstemcelljourney.blogspot.in/

  8. I have a long way to go, but as long as my jugular veins are wide open and the stem cells continue to clean up the mess those narrowed veins left behind, and damaged nerves continue to regenerate, I believe the sky is truly the limit! My main focus at this point is not only to rebuild muscle but to get my legs to work together, which will restore my balance.

    Every day is a new gift that allows me more recovery. I can hardly wait for each morning to see the next improvement! There’s so much more happening in my body than I’ve even mentioned in this writing but I hope I’ve related the main message here...MS was my previous diagnosis.

    I will be starting a blog on my progress in a week or two if anyone wants to contact me or follow my improvement. I’m sure there are many of you out there who are skeptical or would want to know how this is going for me. I’ll post the site information back here once I have it up.For more information visit our site http://davidsmsstemcelljourney.blogspot.in/

  9. The discovery of a cure for MS will not be attributable to a single medical breakthrough but a series of medical discoveries and innovations leading to the cure. This process will involve biochemists and vascular researchers; physicists and radiologists; engineers and neurosurgeons, immunologists and geneticists among many other scientific disciplines. This is not to discard the new theory of a vascular disease connection. But that is only the snowball that got the avalanche moving down the slope. The theory that a simple dilation of the jugular veins can achieve a cure for MS oversimplifies the explanation of the disease pathways and ultimately obscures therapeutic objectives. Since it was proposed three years ago, it has also politicized a specific disease like never before.
    Anyone looking at the empirical evidence demonstrated by the growing number of MS patients who are commonly affected once the retrograde blood flow pressure on the brain is relieved by expanding the occluded jugular veins will quickly agree that Zamboni’s hypothesis is more or less correct; that an equalization of the outflow of blood from the CNS to the heart muscle is essential to reducing the presenting symptoms of MS. But the surgical act of neck vein dilation by itself will not come close to providing the cure. Once the vascular pressures are balanced, only a correlation between a vascular event and the disease itself has been demonstrated. The occluded neck veins do not explain the autoimmune trigger that causes the disease.
    Connecting those dots via the clinical findings from the effect of autologous cells transplanted to the MS brain goes a long way toward the explanation, but again does not identify the trigger. In individuals predisposed to MS, whatever prompts the autoimmune response, inevitable and irreparable damage to the myelin and the interlaced axonal matrix occurs through the pattern of the disease. In multiple clinical trials, suppression of the disease event cascade has been demonstrated with the introduction of Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to the diseased CNS. Once these cells are introduced, the resultant biochemical event sequence has been observed, biochemically identified, measured and described in several important trials. Where the retrograde pressures caused by the stenotic vessels reflux and deposit deoxygenated and iron-rich hemoglobin on the myelin covering of the CNS, MSCs respond by inducing suppression of various immune cell populations and inhibit white blood cells from evaluating the sites of insult and erythrocyte extravasations. But it’s still not known why only some people get MS since the same diseased pathology and internal biochemical conditions exist in human populations that never exhibit the autoimmune response.The good news is that it may not have to be known for the time being. The therapeutic benefits of MSC transplantation have been clinically observed in human subjects. The stem cells, once introduced to the CNS, create the same internal environment where the MS patient’s over-aggressive immune system is suppressed. These stem cells, if present in sufficient numbers, then locate themselves to the areas of disease to replace the damaged nerve and tissue cells. In therapeutic trials on human subjects, the recovery of neurologic deficits in many patients has been remarkably rapid and complete.For more information please visit http://www.ccsviclinic.ca/?p=956