OBJECTIVE To analyze the cause of Cushing’s syndrome classification, the major clinical manifestations and laboratory features of frequency of occurrence, and the efficiency of various diagnostic methods to evaluate the clinical doctors to improve diagnosis and treatment of disease, improve patient prognosis.
METHODS from 2004 to 2009 in our hospital by clinical or pathological diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome in patients with clinical data, of which 57 cases of females, 20 males. For the 77 cases of clinical manifestations, laboratory examination, imaging studies, clinical diagnostic tests, pathological characteristics and with the results of literature analysis and summary of them were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS 1. From 2004 to 2009 were diagnosed 77 cases of Cushing’s syndrome, of which 20 males, female 57 cases, male: female = 2:2.85, adrenal adenoma 80% of female patients of childbearing age women.
2. In Cushing’s disease causes the most common (35 cases), followed by adrenal cortical adenoma (30 cases, the left side of 21 cases), there is a growing trend in the latter. Cushing’s disease course and age of onset of adrenal adenomas were higher than those, the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05), the shortest duration of adrenal carcinoma.
3. Clinical performance, the performance of the diversity of its starter, Hypertension and central obesity were the most frequently occur in 75%, and 79.22% suffering from hypertension, Hypertension 1 11.48%, Hypertension 2 62.30%, Hypertension 3 grade 26.23%, and the incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism and hyperlipidemia, respectively 41% and 68%, of which the proportion of diabetes by 30%, 65% of patients had hypokalemia, mostly mild to moderate, adrenal cortex carcinoma 100% of patients with a low potassium, and is of moderate to severe hypokalemia. Cushing’s disease and adrenal adenoma in serum potassium, blood pressure and gender showed no significant difference.
4. In the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome test, blood cortisol circadian rhythm disappeared (98.65%), elevated midnight serum cortisol (98.55%), 4Pm serum cortisol increased (97.14%), low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (94.59%), 24hUFC increased (91.22%), morning serum cortisol increased (71.62%). Low-dose dexamethasone suppression of serum cortisol in the morning the next day the basis of 8:00 of serum cortisol of 50% and 275,200,138,50 nmol/Lthe sensitivity of the cut-off point were 94.6%, 95.9%, 97.3% , 97.3% and 100%.
5. Patients with Cushing’s syndrome in the differential diagnosis, 80% of Cushing’s patients can be high-dose dexamethasone suppression, while more than 95% of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma can not be high-dose dexamethasone suppression. Cushing’s patients compared with blood cortisol and ACTH levels were significantly higher in patients with adrenal tumors, while the latter’s rhythmic performance is worse, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Both urinary free cortisol showed no significant difference.6. imaging examination, pituitary MRI can detect 88% of Cushing’s disease there is pituitary adenoma, while the adrenal CT 100% can find out the adrenal tumors, adrenal CT of adrenal tumors and hyperplasia pathology consistent rate of 97.5%.
CONCLUSION 1. The present study in Cushing’s disease and adrenal cortical adenoma is still the most common cause of this group a high proportion of cases of adrenal adenoma, left more common. Cushing’s syndrome more common in women of childbearing age women, more common adrenal adenoma, Hypertension is the most common symptoms, mostly moderate to severe hypertension, diabetes, low potassium, high incidence of dyslipidemia.
2. Diagnostic tests in the CS, the morning cortisol increase the sensitivity of the worst, and serum cortisol circadian rhythm disappeared, midnight serum cortisol increased, 4PM cortisol rise, low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, 24hUFC elevated. There was no significant difference。
3. Patients with Cushing’s disease course, age of onset, blood cortisol and ACTH levels were higher than the adrenal adenoma, the latter comparison rhythm of blood cortisol rhythm performance is worse. The serum potassium, blood pressure and no significant difference in gender.
4. High-dose dexamethasone suppression test is to identify Cushing’s disease and adrenal cortical adenoma of the most appropriate method, CT of the adrenal lesion positive rate and help confirm the diagnosis and localization, B super-positive rate was significantly lower than CT, head MRI in Cushing’s disease positive rate.